One of the interesting ways of understanding the beauty and richness of Nepali culture is through its festivals. Participating in the local festivities gives visitors an insight into the life of the Nepali people and makes their stay in Nepal more colorful. Every festive in Nepal traditionally begins with something religious and moves with a spontaneous spirit into a pleasant family feast. Most of the festivals celebrated in Nepal are religious. However, they can be generally divided into: religious, historical, agricultural, seasonal and legendary.
There are more than 50 festivals celebrated in Nepal every year. While the national festivals have fixed dates, religious festivals are set by astrologers following the lunar calendar. The best part about the festivals in Nepal is that all the events are celebrated with the same enthusiasm and galore the way it used to be hundreds of years ago when people had no other means of entertainment. Festivals in Nepal involve cultural dances, songs and performances, making them interesting and entertaining. Here is a list of Nepalese festivals.
Nepalese New Year – 13th April, 2020
It is known as “Navavarsha” or “Naya Barsha” in Nepal. Nepal has its official calendar that begins from the first day of the first month of Baisakh. This very first day is observed as Nepali New Year which usually falls in the second week of April. People go for picnics, have get-togethers and celebrate the day socializing in various ways. Also, this is the day of national holiday.
Buddha Jayanti – 7th May, 2020
Lord Buddha’s birth anniversary is celebrated every year during May in Nepal. On this holy day people throng in Swayambhu, Boudha and other Buddhist stupas and monasteries to pay homage to lord Buddha by chanting prayers, lit butter lamps, remaining vegetarian, offering donation and food to monks etc. People even visit Lumbini ( the birth place of lord Buddha). Buddha was born as Prince Siddhartha Gautam but at his thirties he abandoned royal life including the family while he realized the misery of mankind and started meditation in the jungles of then Nepal and Indian territory in search of enlightenment.
Gai Jatra (Cow Festival) – 4th August, 2020
This festival of cow is celebrated every year in August/September. This is one of the most popular festivals in Nepal as it is full of humor, satire, comedy, mockery and shades of sadness too at the same time. And on this day satires and jokes on anybody is legal. As per the tradition, the family who has lost a relative during the past one year must take part in a procession by sending young boys in cow like attire and walk through the streets of Kathmandu lead by a cow. Cow is regarded as a Goddess and it is also the national animal of Nepal. This festival also purges many who have lost their loved ones as they get to console themselves as to they are not the only ones who have been bereaved and it also teaches to accept death as a part of life.
Krishna Janmastami – 11th August, 2020
The birth anniversary of Lord Sri Krishna, believed to be the 8th incarnation of Lord Vishnu falls sometime in August and September. All the devotees assemble in Krishna Mandir, the ancient Krishna Temple in Patan Durbar Square and other temples with the idol of Sri Krishna and offer prayers, flowers, food, sweets and chant hymns too
Teej – 21th August, 2020
This is a Hindu married woman’s day for her man. This festival is celebrated in August/September. Women clad in beautiful red saris with shining potes (glass beads), singing and dancing is the sight almost everywhere in Nepal during the festival of Teej. On this day women observe a fast and pray Lord Shiva for the long, healthy and prosperous life of their husbands and their families. The unmarried women also observe this festival with unabated zeal with the hope that they will get to marry good husbands. From early dawn, women queue up in the multiple lines in Pashupatinath to offer their prayers to Lord Shiva.
Indra Jatra – 1st September, 2020
This festival named after Lord Indra – the God of Rain and also the King of Heaven is celebrated by both the Buddhists and Hindus in Nepal in August/September. This festival lasts for eight days with singing, mask dancing and rejoicing. The chariot of Kumari, the Living Goddess is taken through the main streets of Kathmandu with much fanfare. On the first day, the Head of State also pays homage to Goddess Kumari. The crowd of excited people from performers to spectators engulfs the streets of Kathmandu during this festival. People get to enjoy various classical dances like elephant dance, lakhe, a very popular dance of a man with a mask. This festival is arguably the most happening festival in Kathamandu valley.
Dashain – 23rd to 26th October, 2020
During the month of Kartik (late September and early October), the Nepalese people indulge in the biggest festival of the year, Dashain. Dashain is the longest and the most auspicious festival in the Nepalese annual calendar, celebrated by Nepalese of all caste and creed throughout the country. The fifteen days of celebration occurs during the bright lunar fortnight ending on the day of the full moon. Thorough out the kingdom of Nepal the goddess Durga in all her manifestations are worshiped with innumerable pujas, abundant offerings and thousands of animal are sacrificed for the ritual holy bathing, thus drenching the goddess for days in blood. Read more about Dashain festival.
Tihar – 15th to 16th November, 2020
This festival of lights that falls between October and November is the second biggest festival after Dashain. This festival lasts for five days and people worship Laxmi, the Goddess of Wealth. All the houses are cleaned, get new painted and decorated with various colored lights in the belief that Goddess Laxmi will enter the house on the auspicious day. In the evening of the day people lit candles, oil lamps and other lights and the whole place looks illuminating. During the five days, crows, dogs and cows are worshipped and honored with vermilion, garland and delicious food for what they have done in the lives of humans. Crows are regarded as the messenger that brought news even during the times when there were no postmen and no postal services. Dogs are the most obedient animals and they guard our house as true guardians. Cow is also a symbol of wealth in Hinduism and she is also the national animal of Nepal. During Tihar, the Newar community in Nepal also observes Mha puja, a ritual of worshipping one’s own body. On this very day, the Newari New Year which is also known as Nepal Sambat begins. The festival ends with Bhai Tika, on this day sisters worship thier brothers for their long and healthy life to safeguard the lives of sisters.
Rato Machhendranath Jatra – , 2020
The Jaatra is known as the longest jaatra of Nepal which begins from the first week of May and remains until the jeweled bhoto (vest) is displayed to the public. The auspicious time of displaying the JEWELED VEST is determined by the national level astrologists. Four days after the chariot of Machhindranath is brought to Jawalakhel, the bhoto is shown to the mass three times.
Thousands of people including the head of the state, along other dignitaries and officials attend the bhoto exhibition.
According to legends, the vest should be displayed on this particular day until its owner comes to claim it, with evidences. According to myths, Bhoto Jatra is celebrated to look for the real owner of the bhoto, which was lost centuries ago by a Jyapu (Newar) farmer of Kathmandu. The Newar community believes that this tradition dates from the Satya Yuga, when deities walked on earth.
Shivaratri – 21st February, 2020
Shivaratri or the night of Lord Shiva that falls sometime between February and March is one of the major festivals of Nepal. This day is dedicated to the Lord of the Lords, Lord Shiva or Mahadev who lived in Mt. Kailash in the Himalayas. Lord Shiva is the most worshipped God in the Hindu religion. More than 300,000 of Hindu devotees from India and Southeast Asia throng weeks ahead of the festival and gather in and around Pashupatinath temple, one of the holiest shrines of the Hindus in Kathmandu to pay their homage to Lord Shiva on his birthday.
“Pashupatinath” literally means “the Lord of animals” as Lord Shiva is considered as the guardian and protector of everything that exists in the Himalayan Kingdom. On this holy day, devotees take dip and bath in the holy river at early dawn and fast for the whole day and stay around fire to keep them warm as it is still winter in Nepal. The devotees also freely indulge in using marijuana and other intoxicating substances as these things are believed to please Lord Shiva.
Holi (Festival of Colors)- 9th March, 2020
This festival of water and colors that falls between February/March is also known as “Phagu” in Nepal. This day is observed to rejoice the extermination of female demon Holika who together with her King brother conspired to kill his son Pralhad, an ardent devotee of Lord Vishnu. This day, playful people especially the young ones wander through the streets in groups on foot or vehicles with various colors smeared all over them and the people in houses make merry throwing colors and water balloons at each other and also to these people on the streets.
Ghode Jatra (Festival of Horses)- 24th March, 2020
This festival takes place between March/April and a grand horse parade takes place at Tundikhel. Although this festival does not have much of religious aspects, a large number of people, even from outside Kathmandu flock around Kathmandu to witness the horse race and other exciting sports activities performed by the Army in the presence of the King and the Royal family.